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Ohrid

1.ohridOhrid and Lake Ohrid

Nickname(s): Macedonian Jerusalem, European Jerusalem[1]

2.lokacija Location in the Republic of Macedonia

Ohrid (Macedonian: Охрид) is a city on the eastern shore of Lake Ohrid in the Republic of Macedonia. It has about 42,000 inhabitants, making it the seventh largest city in the country. The city is the seat of Ohrid Municipality. Ohrid is notable for having once had 365 churches, one for each day of the year and has been referred to as a "Jerusalem". The city is rich in picturesque houses and monuments, and tourism is predominant. It is located southwest of Skopje, west of Resen and Bitola, and east of Elbasan and Tirana in Albania.

In 1980, Ohrid and Lake Ohrid were accepted as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
Name in Macedonian, and the other South Slavic languages, the name of the city is Ohrid (Охрид). In Albanian, the city is known as Oher or Ohri. Historical names include the Latin Lychnidus or the Greek names Lychnidos, Ochrida and Achrida, the latter two of which are still in modern usage.

Geography
Ohrid is located in the south-western part of Macedonia, on the banks of Lake Ohrid, at an elevation of 690 meters above sea level.

History
The earliest inhabitants of the widest Lake Ohrid region were the Bryges and Encheleans. During the Roman conquests, towards the end of 3rd and the beginning of 2nd century BC, the Greek Dassaretae and the region Dassaretia were mentioned, as well as the town of Lychnidos. The existence of the ancient town of Lychnidos is linked to the Greek myth of the Phoenician prince Cadmus who, banished from Thebes, in Boetia, fled to the Enchelei and founded the town of Lychnidos on the shores of Lake Ohrid.

3.istoriska mapa Distribution of cities in antiquity in the border of southern Illyria with Greeks and Thracians

The Lake of Ohrid, the ancient Lacus Lychnitis, whose blue and exceedingly transparent waters in remote antiquity gave to the lake its Greek name; it was still called so occasionally in the Middle Ages. It was located along the Via Egnatia, which connected the Adriatic port Dyrrachion (present-day Durres) with Byzantium. According to recent excavations by Macedonian archaeologists it was a town way back at the time of king Phillip II of Macedon. They allege that Samuil's Fortress was built on the place of an earlier fortification, dated to 4th century B.C. Archaeological excavations (e.g., the Polyconch Basilica from 5th century) prove early adoption of Christianity in the area. Bishops from Lychnidos participated in multiple ecumenical councils.

4.mozaik Floor mosaic in the Polyconch Basilica

The higher clergy after 1018 was almost invariably Greek, including during the period of Ottoman domination, until the abolition of the archbishopric in 1767. At the beginning of the 16th century the archbishopric reached its peak subordinating the Sofia, Vidin, Vlach and Moldavian eparchies, part of the former Pec Patriarchate (including Pec itself), and even the Orthodox districts of Italy (Apulia, Calabria and Sicily), Venice and Dalmatia.

As an episcopal city, Ohrid was an important cultural center. Almost all surviving churches were built by the Byzantines and by the Macedonians, the rest of them date back to the short time of Serbian rule during the late Middle Ages.

Ohrid is credited as being the likely birthplace of the Cyrillic alphabet, which was most probably created by St. Clement of Ohrid that further reformed the Glagolitic alphabet created in turn by the brothers Saints Cyril and Methodius.

5.kuca robevci The house of the Robevi family

Bohemond and his Norman army took the city in 1083. In the 13th and 14th century the city changed hands between the Despotate of Epirus, the Bulgarian, the Byzantine and the Serbian Empires. At the end of the 14th century it was conquered by the Ottomans and remained under them until 1912. The Christian population declined during the first centuries of Ottoman rule. In 1664 there were only 142 Christian houses. The situation improved in the 18th century when Ohrid emerged as an important trade center on a major trade route. At the end of this century it had around five thousand inhabitants. Towards the end of the 18th century and in the early part of the 19th century, Ohrid region, like other parts of European Turkey, was a hotbed of unrest. Semi-independent feudal lords such as Mahmud Pasha Bushatlija and Djeladin Beg controlled Ohrid and openly defied the central government by not submitting taxes and by using tax money to bolster their own private armies. By the end of 19th century Ohrid had 2409 houses with 11900 inhabitants out of which 45% were Muslim while the rest was mainly Orthodox Christian. Before 1912, Ohrid (Ohri) was a township center bounded to Monastir sanjak in Monastir province (present-day Bitola).

Buildings and museums (selection)

There is a legend supported by observations by Ottoman traveler from 15th century, Evlia Celebia that there were 365 chapels within the town boundaries, one for every day of the year. Today this number is significantly smaller. However during the medieval times, Ohrid was called Slavic Jerusalem.

 1.Church of St. Sophia
 2.Church of St. Panteleimon
 3.Church of St. John at Kaneo (Jovan Kaneo)
 4.Church of St. Clement
 5.Church of St. George
 6.Church of St. Zaum
 7.Church of St. Naum
 8.Church of St. Petka
 9.Church of St. Stefan
10.Vestiges of basilicas from the early-Christian time, e.g. Basilica of St. Erazmo (4th century)
11.Museum of Slavic writing culture (18th century)
12.Robevi family house, museum of archeology
13.Antique Theatre
14.Church of St. Vraci, with frescos from the 14th century. A 14th-century icon from the church is depicted on the obverse of the Macedonian 1000 denars banknote, issued in 1996 and 2003.

Note: Besides being a holy center of the region, it is also the source of knowledge and pan-Slavic literacy. The restored Monastery at Plaoshnik was actually one of the oldest Universities in the western world, dating before the 10th century.

There is a nearby airport, Ohrid Airport (now known as Apostle Paul Airport) that is open all year round.

Antique Theatre


6.anticki teatar

The Antique Theatre of Ohrid is an ancient Greek theatre of the Hellenistic period, located in Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia. It was built in 200 B.C.. It is the only Hellenistic theatre in the country (the other three in Scupi, Stobi and Heraklea_Lynkestis are from Roman times). It is unclear how many people it used to seat, as only the lower section of the theatre is preserved. The open theater has a perfect location: the two hills that surround it keep it protected from winds that could interfere with acoustics during performances. The Anitque Theatre was actually discovered by accident and, today, hosts various different events and serves multiple functions.

Samuil's Fortress

 

7.tvrdina
The fortress of Tsar Samuil

Samuil's Fortress is a fortress in the old town of Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia. It was the capital of the Macedonian Tsar Samuil in the middle-ages. Today, this historical monument is a major tourist attraction and was renovated in 2003.

According to recent excavations by Macedonian archaeologists, it was alleged that this fortress was built on the place of an earlier fortification, dated to 4th century B.C., which was probably built by king Phillip II of Macedon.

Plaoshnik


8.plaosnik Plaoshnik                                                St. Clement’s Church                                              Muslim tombs

 

9.plaosnik Christian basilica                                              The Baptistery

Plaoshnik or simply Plaosh (Macedonian: Плаошник, Плаош) is an archaeological site and holy place in Ohrid, 250 meters below Samuil's Fortress. In the future, the whole complex will have konaks (mansions) as in the time of Saint Clement of Ohrid, together with several surrounding objects.

Archaelogical sites

St. Clement’s Church
The church was built by St.Clement in 893 year on the foundation of the early Christian basilica, and dedicated to St.Panteleimon. It was here that the Ohrid Literary School, a center of Slavonic literary and cultural activity where it was educated more than 3,500 disciples. St. Clement was buried in this monastery, in the tomb which was build by his hands.

After the advent of the Ottoman Turks, St. Clement’s Church was converted into a mosque, known as the Imaret Mosque, of which only a small enclosure remains. The mosque was built as an endowment and a memorial by Sinan Chelebi, member of the distinguished Turkish family of the Ohrizade.

Apart from the monastery's many reconstructions during the Ottoman empire, it has recently undergone extensive reconstruction and excavation. Reconstruction started on December 8, 2000 and the physical church was fully reconstructed by August 10, 2002. Most of Saint Clement's relics were returned to the church.

Baptistery
On Plaoshnik has been discovered the baptistery of the five aisle basilica with hooked crosses (swastikas) on the mosaic floors which date from the period between 4th and 6th century. It is assumed that this early Christian basilica at Plaoshnik upon which the Kliment’s monastery was built in the 9th century, was dedicated to St. Paul, the apostle. In Lichnid, present Ohrid the apostle Paul preached the Christianity in the 1st century A.D.

On October 10, 2007, a deposit of approximately 2,383 Venetian coins was discovered by archaeologists while excavating the monastery. A prominent archaeologist of the Republic of Macedonian, Pasko Kuzman, stated that the coins are of special significance because they indicate that Ohrid and Venice were commercially linked.

Church of St.John

10.kaneoChurch of Saint John the Theologian

Saint John the Theologian, Kaneo (Macedonian: Свети Јован Канео, Latinic: Sveti Jovan Kaneo) or simply Saint John at Kaneo is a Macedonian Orthodox church situated on Kaneo beach overlooking Lake Ohrid in the city of Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia. The church is attributed to the author of the Gospel of John, John the Theologian. The construction date of the church remains unknown but documents detailing the church property suggests that it was built before the year 1447. Archaeologists believe that the church was constructed some time before the rise of the Ottoman Empire very likely in the 13th century. Restoration work in 1964 led to the discovery of frescoes in its dome.

The church was built into the shape of a cruciform with a rectangular base. The architect of the church is unknown but it is believed that he was influenced by the architecture of Armenian churches. Reconstruction work was carried out on the church in the 14th century, shortly before the arrival of Ottoman Turks in Macedonia. A wooden iconostasis was constructed within the church and by the 20th century numerous saints along with the Virgin Mary have been portrayed on the apse. A fresco of Christ Pantocrator can be seen on the dome of the church. A fresco of Saint Clement of Ohrid (whose monastery, Saint Panteleimon, is located close to the church) accompanied by Saint Erasmus of Ohrid can also be seen on a wall of the church.

Church of St.Naum


11.svnaum Monastery of Saint Naum above Lake Ohrid

The Monastery of Saint Naum (Macedonian: Манастир „Свети Наум“) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery in the Republic of Macedonia, named after the medieval Saint Naum who founded it. It is situated along Lake Ohrid, 29 kilometres south of the city of Ohrid.

History
The monastery was established in the year 905 by St Naum of Ohrid himself. St Naum is also buried in the church.

The area where the monastery of St Naum lies belonged to Albania from 1912 until June 28, 1925, when Zog of Albania ceded it to Yugoslavia as a result of negotiations between Albania and Yugoslavia and as a gesture of goodwill.

Bay of Bones

Ohrid was enriched with another cultural and historical landmark as well as with a tourist attraction - Museum on Water - an exceptional archaeological complex, which is one of a kind in the region. On the southern coast of Gradiste Peninsula in the Bay of Bones, a pile-dwelling settlement has been erected, which in the past was spreading at a total surface of 8.500 m2. It is an authentic reconstruction of a part of the pile-dwelling settlement, dating back between 1200 and 700 BC.

12.koski
A Roman military fortification (Gradiste) has been reconstructed on the hill above the Bay of Bones simultaneously with constructing the pile-dwelling settlement and the Water Museum. The walls of the fortification that once had protected the Roman Empire from its enemies, are once again lifted up on the hill near Gradiste.The Roman fortress is connected with the settlement in order tourists and visitors to be given an extraordinary opportunity to experience time travel, from prehistoric to ancient times and vice versa.

Friday the 24th. 2013
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